A broadband X-ray imaging spectroscopy in the 2030s: the FORCE mission

Koji Mori*, Takeshi G. Tsuru, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shin Watanabe, Takaaki Tanaka, Manabu Ishida, Hironori Matsumoto, Hisamitsu Awaki, Hiroshi Murakami, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Ayaki Takeda, Yasushi Fukazawa, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Ann Hornschemeier, Takashi Okajima, William W. Zhang, Brian J. Williams, Tonia VentersKristin Madsen, Mihoko Yukita, Hiroki Akamatsu, Aya Bamba, Teruaki Enoto, Yutaka Fujita, Akihiro Furuzawa, Kouichi Hagino, Kosei Ishimura, Masayuki Itoh, Tetsu Kitayama, Shogo Kobayashi, Takayoshi Kohmura, Aya Kubota, Misaki Mizumoto, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hiroshi Nakajima, Kumiko K. Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Naomi Ota, Toshiki Sato, Megumi Shidatsu, Hiromasa Suzuki, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Atsushi Tanimoto, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Hiroyuki Uchida, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Yoichi Yatsu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)


In this multi-messenger astronomy era, all the observational probes are improving their sensitivities and overall performance. The Focusing on Relativistic universe and Cosmic Evolution (FORCE) mission, the product of a JAXA/NASA collaboration, will reach a 10 times higher sensitivity in the hard X-ray band (E > 10 keV) in comparison with any previous hard X-ray missions, and provide simultaneous soft X-ray coverage. FORCE aims to be launched in the early 2030s, providing a perfect hard X-ray complement to the ESA flagship mission Athena. FORCE will be the most powerful X-ray probe for discovering obscured/hidden black holes and studying high energy particle acceleration in our Universe and will address how relativistic processes in the universe are realized and how these affect cosmic evolution. FORCE, which will operate over 1–79 keV, is equipped with two identical pairs of supermirrors and wideband X-ray imagers. The mirror and imager are connected by a high mechanical stiffness extensible optical bench with alignment monitor systems with a focal length of 12 m. A light-weight silicon mirror with multi-layer coating realizes a high angular resolution of < 15′′ in half-power diameter in the broad bandpass. The imager is a hybrid of a brand-new SOI-CMOS silicon-pixel detector and a CdTe detector responsible for the softer and harder energy bands, respectively. FORCE will play an essential role in the multi-messenger astronomy in the 2030s with its broadband X-ray sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2022
Subtitle of host publicationUltraviolet to Gamma Ray
EditorsJan-Willem A. den Herder, Shouleh Nikzad, Kazuhiro Nakazawa
ISBN (Electronic)9781510653436
Publication statusPublished - 2022
EventSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2022: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray - Montreal, United States
Duration: 2022 Jul 172022 Jul 22

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2022: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • CdTe
  • black hole
  • broadband X-ray imaging spectroscopy
  • particle acceleration
  • silicon mirror
  • supernova explosion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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