A cross-sectional study on the mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon with growth

Yasuyoshi Mogi*, Suguru Torii, Yasuo Kawakami, Toshimasa Yanai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate growth pattern of mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon and to examine if imbalance between growth of bone and muscle–tendon unit occurs during adolescence. Methods: Fourteen elementary school boys, 30 junior high school boys, 20 high school boys and 15 male adults participated in this study. Based on estimated age at peak height velocity (PHV), junior high school boys were separated into two groups (before or after PHV). An ultrasonography technique was used to determine the length, cross-sectional area, stiffness and Young’s modulus of Achilles tendon. In addition, the maximum strain in “toe region” (strainTP) was determined to describe the balance between growth of bone and muscle–tendon unit. Results: No group difference was observed in length, cross-sectional area and strainTP among the groups. However, stiffness and Young’s modulus in after PHV groups were significantly higher than those of elementary school boys and before PHV groups (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: These results indicate that mechanical properties of Achilles tendon change dramatically at and/or around PHV to increased stiffness. The widely believed assumption that muscle–tendon unit is passively stretched due to rapid bone growth in adolescence is not supported.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-194
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jan 1


  • Growth
  • Muscle–tendon imbalance
  • Peak height velocity
  • Stiffness
  • Young’s modulus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physiology (medical)


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