A design method for out-of-plane structures by multi-step magnetic self-assembly

Eiji Iwase*, Isao Shimoyama

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


We provide the design method of multi-step magnetic self-assembly using ferromagnetic-hinged structures. The process uses the magnetostatic torque generated by an external magnetic field perpendicular to the substrate to lift hinged structures. Hinged structure is composed of a rigid plate connected by elastic hinges to one side of a substrate. If hinged structures are raised in sequential order, it is possible to assemble like Japanese "origami" complex three-dimensional structures. In our previous study, we found that a dimensionless factor that depends on its shape determines the sensitivity of the hinged microstructures to a magnetic field. This factor can be used as a criterion in designing a process for sequential batch self-assembly, because the factor indicates the differences in the sensitivity. In this study, we designed multi-step sequential assembly by using the dimensionless factor. Four-step sequential batch assembly was demonstrated using this method. This method will be useful for optical systems, which consist of many complex three-dimensional structures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)310-315
Number of pages6
JournalSensors and Actuators, A: Physical
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Mar 13
Externally publishedYes


  • Hinged structures
  • Magnetic self-assembly
  • Multi-step sequential assembly
  • Out-of-plane structures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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