A Least-Squares Solution for Correlation Structure Analysis with Fisher's Z-Transformation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this study is to propose a least-squares method for parameter estimation using Fisher's z-transformation in correlation structure analysis. An advantage of this method in comparison with the unweighted least squares method (ULS) is that the residuals are normally distributed and their variances are homogeneous. A numerical example is given for factor analysis by using the data of Spearman (1904). Through the results of computer simulations in higher-order factor analysis, this method is shown to have less significant errors of parameter estimates than the ULS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-70
Number of pages4
JournalThe Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1989
Externally publishedYes


  • Fisher's z-transformation
  • computer simulation
  • correlation structure analysis
  • higher-order factor analysis
  • least-squares method

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'A Least-Squares Solution for Correlation Structure Analysis with Fisher's Z-Transformation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this