A new read scheme for high-density emerging memories

Takashi Ohsawa*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Several new memories are being studied as candidates of future DRAM that seems difficult to be scaled. However, the read signal in these new memories needs to be amplified in a single-end manner with reference signal supplied if they are aimed for being applied to the high-density main memory. This scheme, which is fortunately not necessary in DRAM's 1/2Vdd pre-charge sense amp, can become a serious bottleneck in the new memory development, because the device electrical parameters in these new memory cells are prone to large cell-to-cell variations without exception. Furthermore, the extent to which the parameter fluctuates in data “1” is generally not the same as in data “0”. In these situations, a new sensing scheme is proposed that can minimize the sensing error rate for high-density single-end emerging memories like STT-MRAM, ReRAM and PCRAM. The scheme is based on averaging multiple dummy cell pairs that are written “1” and “0” in a weighted manner according to the fluctuation unbalance between “1” and “0”. A detailed analysis shows that this scheme is effective in designing 128Mb 1T1MTJ STT-MRAM with the results that the required TMR ratio of an MTJ can be relaxed from 130% to 90% for the fluctuation of 6% sigma-to-average ratio of MTJ resistance in a 16 pair-dummy cell averaging case by using this technology when compared with the arithmetic averaging method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)423-429
Number of pages7
JournalIEICE Transactions on Electronics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jun


  • Bit yield
  • Dummy cell
  • Memristor
  • ReRAM
  • Redundancy
  • Reference cell
  • Weighted average

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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