Abdominal muscle activity during a standing long jump

Yu Okubo*, Koji Kaneoka, Itsuo Shiina, Masaki Tatsumura, Shumpei Miyakawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


STUDY DESIGN: Experimental laboratory study. OBJECTIVES: To measure the activation patterns (onset and magnitude) of the abdominal muscles during a standing long jump using wire and surface electromyography. BACKGROUND: Activation patterns of the abdominal muscles, especially the deep muscles such as the transversus abdominis (TrA), have yet to be examined during full-body movements such as jumping. METHODS: Thirteen healthy men participated. Wire electrodes were inserted into the TrA with the guidance of ultrasonography, and surface electrodes were attached to the skin overlying the rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO). Electromyographic signals and video images were recorded while each subject performed a standing long jump. The jump task was divided into 3 phases: preparation, push-off, and float. For each muscle, activation onset relative to the onset of the RA and normalized muscle activation levels (percent maximum voluntary contraction) were analyzed during each phase. Comparisons between muscles and phases were assessed using 2-way analyses of variance. RESULTS: The onset times of the TrA and EO relative to the onset of the RA were -0.13 ± 0.17 seconds and -0.02 ± 0.07 seconds, respectively. Onset of TrA activation was earlier than that of the EO. The activation levels of all 3 muscles were significantly greater during the push-off phase than during the preparation and float phases. CONCLUSION: Consistent with previously published trunk-perturbation studies in healthy persons, the TrA was activated prior to the RA and EO. Additionally, the highest muscle activation levels were observed during the push-off phase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)577-582
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Aug


  • Electromyography
  • Muscle onset
  • Transversus abdominis
  • Trunk stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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