Accuracy of non-exercise estimated cardiorespiratory fitness in Japanese adults

Robert A. Sloan*, Marco V. Scarzanella, Yuko Gando, Susumu S. Sawada

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. In Japan, annual physical exams are mandatory in workplace settings, and most healthcare settings have electronic medical records (EMRs). However, in both settings, CRF is not usually determined, thereby limiting the potential for epidemiological investigations using EMR data. PURPOSE: To estimate CRF (mL/kg/min) using variables commonly recorded in EMRs. METHODS: Participants were 5293 Japanese adults (11.7% women) who completed an annual physical exam at a large gas company in Tokyo, Japan, in 2004. The mean age was 48.3 ± 8.0 years. Estimated CRF (eCRF) was based on age, measured body mass index, resting heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and smoking. Measured CRF was determined by a submaximal cycle ergometer graded exercise test. RESULTS: Regression models were used for males and females to calculate Pearson’s correlation and regression coefficients. Cross-classification of measured CRF and eCRF was conducted using the lowest quintile, quartile, and tertile as the unfit categories. R’s for eCRF were 0.61 (MD 4.41) for men and 0.64 (MD 4.22) for women. The overall accuracy level was reasonable and consistent across models, yet the unfit lower tertile model provided the best overall model when considering the positive predictive value and sensitivity. CONCLUSION: eCRF may provide a useful method for conducting investigations using data derived from EMRs or datasets devoid of CRF or physical activity measures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12288
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec 1


  • Electronic medical records
  • Epidemiology
  • Estimated cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Public health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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