Advances and challenges in vector modulation technologies

Tetsuya Kawanishi*, Takahide Sakamoto, Akito Chiba

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


This paper describes recent progress of high-speed vector optical modulation technologies based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices. Multi-level quadrature amplitude modulation signal can be synthesized by using parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators. We can generate complicated multi-level optical signals from binary data streams, where binary modulated signals are vectorially summed in optical circuits. Modulation speed can be higher than 80 Gbaud by using a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator with thin lithium niobate substrate.

Original languageEnglish
Article number72340D
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes
EventBroadband Access Communication Technologies III - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: 2009 Jan 282009 Jan 29


  • Lithium niobate
  • Mach-zehnder interferometer
  • Optical modulator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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