Adverse associations of car time with markers of cardio-metabolic risk

Takemi Sugiyama*, Katrien Wijndaele, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Stephanie K. Tanamas, David W. Dunstan, Neville Owen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To examine associations of time spent sitting in cars with markers of cardio-metabolic risk in Australian adults. Method: Data were from 2800 participants (age range: 34-65) in the 2011-12 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. Self-reported time spent in cars was categorized into four groups: ≤ 15. min/day; >. 15 to ≤ 30. min/day; > 30 to ≤ 60 min/day; and > 60. min/day. Markers of cardio-metabolic risk were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, a clustered cardio-metabolic risk score, and having the metabolic syndrome or not. Multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses examined associations of car time with each cardio-metabolic risk outcome, adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral variables and medication use for blood pressure and cholesterol/triglycerides. Results: Compared to spending 15. min/day or less in cars, spending more than 1. h/day in cars was significantly associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, and clustered cardio-metabolic risk, after adjusting for socio-demographic attributes and potentially relevant behaviors including leisure-time physical activity and dietary intake. Gender interactions showed car time to be associated with higher BMI in men only. Conclusions: Prolonged time spent sitting in cars, in particular over 1. h/day, was associated with higher total and central adiposity and a more-adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile. Further studies, ideally using objective measures of sitting time in cars and prospective designs, are needed to confirm the impact of car use on cardio-metabolic disease risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-30
Number of pages5
JournalPreventive Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Feb 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Adiposity
  • Automobile
  • Motorized transport
  • Sedentary behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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