AGMB-Transformer: Anatomy-Guided Multi-Branch Transformer Network for Automated Evaluation of Root Canal Therapy

Yunxiang Li, Guodong Zeng, Yifan Zhang, Jun Wang, Qun Jin, Lingling Sun, Qianni Zhang, Qisi Lian, Guiping Qian, Neng Xia, Ruizi Peng, Kai Tang, Shuai Wang*, Yaqi Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Accurate evaluation of the treatment result on X-ray images is a significant and challenging step in root canal therapy since the incorrect interpretation of the therapy results will hamper timely follow-up which is crucial to the patients' treatment outcome. Nowadays, the evaluation is performed in a manual manner, which is time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. In this article, we aim to automate this process by leveraging the advances in computer vision and artificial intelligence, to provide an objective and accurate method for root canal therapy result assessment. A novel anatomy-guided multi-branch Transformer (AGMB-Transformer) network is proposed, which first extracts a set of anatomy features and then uses them to guide a multi-branch Transformer network for evaluation. Specifically, we design a polynomial curve fitting segmentation strategy with the help of landmark detection to extract the anatomy features. Moreover, a branch fusion module and a multi-branch structure including our progressive Transformer and Group Multi-Head Self-Attention (GMHSA) are designed to focus on both global and local features for an accurate diagnosis. To facilitate the research, we have collected a large-scale root canal therapy evaluation dataset with 245 root canal therapy X-ray images, and the experiment results show that our AGMB-Transformer can improve the diagnosis accuracy from 57.96% to 90.20% compared with the baseline network. The proposed AGMB-Transformer can achieve a highly accurate evaluation of root canal therapy. To our best knowledge, our work is the first to perform automatic root canal therapy evaluation and has important clinical value to reduce the workload of endodontists.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1684-1695
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Apr 1


  • Root canal therapy
  • X-ray image
  • classification
  • progressive transformer
  • segmentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Health Informatics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Health Information Management


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