An armrest is effective for reducing hand tremble in neurosurgeons

Yosuke Hara, Tetsuya Goto*, Jun Okamoto, Hideki Okuda, Hiroshi Iseki, Kazuhiro Hongo

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    15 Citations (Scopus)


    Experienced neurosurgeons reduce hand tremble by placing their hand beside the operative field when performing microneurosurgery conventionally. Another solution to reduce hand tremble is an armrest. However, the reduction of hand tremble by using an armrest or finger-placing technique has not been rigorously measured in microneurosurgery. This study was performed to provide a quantitative assessment of the efficacy of an armrest to reduce hand tremble in comparison with the finger-placing technique. Hand tremble was evaluated in 11 board-certified neurosurgeons in a simulated microneurosurgery. The loci of surgical forceps handled by neurosurgeons were measured by a three-dimensional optical coordinate measuring machine. A static task was performed under four conditions: with/without the finger-placing technique and/or an armrest. The radius of an imaginative sphere including 95% of each locus was calculated and reviewed according to the four conditions. Hand tremble was significantly larger when the finger-placing technique was not implemented compared to when the technique was used (P< 0.05). The armrest also reduced hand tremble (P < 0.05) similar to the finger-placing technique. Non-inferiority was retained between the finger-placing technique and the armrest. Concomitant use of the armrest and the finger-placing technique did not interfere with the efficacy of the technique to reduce neurosurgeon’s hand tremble. The finger-placing technique was confirmed to reduce hand tremble. Resting the neurosurgeon’s forearm on an armrest also reduced the hand tremble. An armrest is a device that reduces hand tremble in neurosurgeons like the finger-placing technique.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)311-316
    Number of pages6
    JournalNeurologia Medico-Chirurgica
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2015


    • Armrest
    • Hand tremble
    • Microsurgery
    • Three-dimensional optical coordinate measuring machine
    • Tremor

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Surgery
    • Clinical Neurology


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