An Optimization Algorithm for Production Systems

Toru Ishida*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


As the scale of rule-based expert systems increases, the efficiency of production systems becomes a pressing concern. Recently developed production systems thus enable users to specify an appropriate ordering or clustering of join operations. Various efficiency heuristics have been introduced to optimize production rules manually. However, since the heuristics often conflict with each other, users have to proceed by trial and error. The problem addressed in this paper is how to automatically determine efficient join structures for production system programs. Our algorithm does not directly apply efficiency heuristics to programs, but rather enumerates possible join structures under various constraints and selects the best one. For this purpose, the cost model for production systems is introduced to estimate the run-time cost of join operations. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can generate programs that are as efficient as those obtained by manual optimization, and thus can reduce the burden of manual optimization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)549-558
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1994 Aug
Externally publishedYes


  • Expert system
  • optimization
  • problem solving
  • production rule
  • production system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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