Machine tools are recognized as key components of manufacturing systems, and product quality and cost mainly depend on performances of the machine tools. Much progress has been made in the machine tool technologies, aimed at improving the performances of the machine tools from various viewpoints, such as accuracy, reliability, productivity, and flexibility. The machining accuracy is one of the most important characteristics of the machine tools. From the viewpoints of the design and the manufacturing of the machine tools and their components, one of the important issues is to clarify the relationships between the kinematic motion deviations of the machine tools and the geometric tolerances of the components, such as the guide ways and the bearings. The objective of the present research is to establish mathematical models representing the kinematic motion deviations of the machine tools, on the basis of the geometric tolerances of the components, and to apply the models to theoretical analysis of the kinematic motion deviations of the machine tool components.