Another example of conditioned taste aversion: Case of snails

Junko Nakai, Yuki Totani, Dai Hatakeyama, Varvara E. Dyakonova, Etsuro Ito*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in mammals has several specific characteristics: (1) emergence of a negative symptom in subjects due to selective association with a taste-related stimulus, (2) robust long-term memory that is resistant to extinction induced by repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS), (3) a very-long-delay presentation of the unconditioned stimulus (US), and (4) single-trial learning. The pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, can also form a CTA. Although the negative symptoms, like nausea, in humans cannot be easily observed in invertebrate animal models of CTA, all the other characteristics of CTA seem to be present in snails. Selective associability was confirmed using a sweet sucrose solution and a bitter KCl solution. Once snails form a CTA, repeated presentation of the CS does not extinguish the CTA. A long interstimulus interval between the CS and US, like in trace conditioning, still results in the formation of a CTA in snails. Lastly, even single-trial learning has been demonstrated with a certain probability. In the present review, we compare, in detail, CTA in mammals and snails, and discuss the possible molecular events in CTA.

Original languageEnglish
Article number422
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Dec


  • Conditioned taste aversion
  • Insulin
  • Long-delay learning
  • Lymnaea stagnalis
  • Selective associability
  • Single-trial learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Another example of conditioned taste aversion: Case of snails'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this