Association between exercise and diet on maintaining bone health in postmenopausal women and female athletes

Yoshiko Ishimi*, Kaoru Yanaka, Mitsuru Higuchi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Prevention is the most important measure that can be taken to avoid osteoporosis, because bone mass, once it is lost, cannot be recovered. Both men and women reach their maximum bone mass when they are in their 20s and 30s; bone mass is maintained or may even increase slightly as people reach their 40s, and gradually decreases thereafter. In particular, bone mass dramatically decreases in postmenopausal women because of a decrease in serum estrogen level. Bone mass is influenced by genetic and environmental factors such as mechanical loading, nutrition, and lifestyle, along with gender, age, and metabolic factors. Among these factors, mechanical loading, i.e. exercise, and nutrition seem to be important in maintaining bone health, and lifestyle choices, including following a regular exercise program and consuming a diet rich in minerals and vitamins, when maintained throughout life, can be expected to preserve bone health. In contrast, excessive exercise with energy restriction induces osteoporosis in female athletes. This section will discuss the importance of appropriate exercise and diet on bone health in women, and some insights gained from studies using a rat model.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPhysical Activity, Exercise, Sedentary Behavior and Health
PublisherSpringer Japan
Number of pages18
ISBN (Print)9784431553335, 9784431553328
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jan 1


  • Bone health
  • Diet
  • Exercise
  • Female athlete
  • Osteoporosis
  • Postmenopausal women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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