Association Between Na, K, and Lipid Intake in Each Meal and Blood Pressure

Momoko Imamura, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Takae Shinto, Yu Tahara, Saneyuki Makino, Mai Kuwahara, Ayako Tada, Nanako Abe, Mikiko Michie, Shigenobu Shibata*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and one of the most significant risk factors for CVDs is high blood pressure. Blood pressure is associated with various nutrients, such as sodium, potassium, and cholesterol. However, research focusing on the timing of intake of these nutrients and blood pressure has not been conducted. In this study, we used dietary data and a questionnaire asking about the sleep, physical activity, and blood pressure, collected from the food-log app “Asken” (total N = 2,402), to investigate the relationship between the dietary data of nutrient intake in the breakfast, lunch, and dinner and blood pressure. Daily total intake of various nutrients such as sodium, sodium-to-potassium ratio, total energy, lipid, carbohydrate, and saturated fat showed a significant association with blood pressure depending on the meal timing. From multiple regression analysis, eliminating the confounding factors, lunch sodium-to-potassium ratio, dinner energy, lipid, cholesterol, saturated fat, and alcohol intake were positively associated with blood pressure, whereas breakfast protein and lunch fiber intake showed a negative association with blood pressure. Our results suggest that nutrient intake timing is also an important factor in the prevention of high blood pressure. Our study provides possibilities to prevent hypertension by changing the timing of nutrient intake, especially sodium, together with potassium and lipids. However, because our research was limited to food-log app users, broader research regarding the general population needs to be conducted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number853118
JournalFrontiers in Nutrition
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 4


  • blood pressure
  • chrono-nutrition
  • dietary pattern
  • lipid
  • potassium
  • sodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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