Association between water and energy requirements with physical activity and fat-free mass in preschool children in japan

Yosuke Yamada, Hiroyuki Sagayama, Jun Yasukata, Akiko Uchizawa, Aya Itoi, Tsukasa Yoshida, Daiki Watanabe, Yukako Hashii-Arishima, Hisashi Mitsuishi, Makoto Nishimura, Misaka Kimura, Yoshiko Aoki*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Water and energy are essential for the human body. The doubly labeled water (DLW) method measures water turnover (WT) and total energy expenditure (TEE), which serves as a benchmark for the adequate intake (AI) of water and estimated energy requirements (EER). The objective of the current study was to examine the association of WT and TEE with physical activity and body composition in Japanese preschool children. We included 41 preschool children (22 girls, 19 boys) aged 3–6 in this study. WT, TEE, and fat-free mass (FFM) were obtained using DLW. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer and categorized as light (LPA; 1.5–2.9 Metabolic equivalents, METs) and of moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA; ≥3.0 METs). Exercise duration (Ex) was defined as ≥4.0 METs of physical activity. WT and TEE moderately positively correlated with Ex, but not with LPA. WT moderately positively correlated with BW and FFM while TEE strongly. We established predictive equations for WT and TEE using body weight (BW), FFM, step count, and Ex to guide the AI of water and EER in Japanese preschool children. We found that FFM and step count are the determinants of TEE, and that BW and Ex are the determinants of WT in preschool children.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4169
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Nov
Externally publishedYes


  • Children
  • Doubly labeled water
  • Exercise
  • Japan
  • Prediction equation
  • Preschool
  • Total energy expenditure
  • Water turnover

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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