Association of bioelectrical phase angle with aerobic capacity, complex gait ability and total fitness score in older adults

Yosuke Yamada*, Aya Itoi, Tsukasa Yoshida, Takashi Nakagata, Keiichi Yokoyama, Hiroyuki Fujita, Misaka Kimura, Motohiko Miyachi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study aimed to examine the association between whole-body or segmental phase angle (PhA) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and aerobic capacity (endurance), complex gait ability, and total fitness age score (FAS). Methods: A total of 426 community-dwelling older adults (332 women and 94 men) aged 60 to 93 years participated in this study. PhA and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) were obtained by an eight-electrode standing BIA. Aerobic capacity was assessed using the shuttle stamina walk test (SSTw); complex gait ability, using the timed-up-and-go test (TUG). FAS was obtained using the previously validated multi-dimensional equations based on 7-year longitudinal data. SSTw, TUG, and FAS were compared between the low PhA (<4.4° for women and <5.2° for men) and normal PhA groups. Pearson's correlation between PhA and SSTw, TUG, and FAS was determined. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted using SSTw, TUG, and FAS as dependent variables. Age, sex, height, body mass index (BMI), ASMI, and PhA were entered into the linear model. Results: SSTw and TUG results and FAS were significantly lower in the low PhA group (P < 0.05). PhA was significantly correlated with SSTw, TUG, and FAS (P < 0.001), and leg PhA showed a stronger correlation than whole-body or arm PhA. PhA at 50 kHz had higher correlation coefficients with SSTw, TUG, or FAS compared with PhA at 5 or 250 kHz. Multiple regression analyses indicated that leg PhA at 50 kHz was a significant predictor of SSTw, TUG, and FAS, independent of age, sex, height, BMI, and ASMI. Conclusion: Our results indicate that leg PhA is associated with multi-dimensional physical fitness in community-dwelling older adults. PhA is a highly informative biomarker of skeletal muscle and exercise physiology in clinical settings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111350
JournalExperimental Gerontology
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul 15
Externally publishedYes


  • Aerobic and endurance capacity
  • Multi-frequency
  • Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis
  • Timed-up-and-go
  • Total fitness age score

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Ageing
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Endocrinology
  • Cell Biology


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