Association of Japanese Breakfast Intake with Macro- and Micronutrients and Morning Chronotype

Farnaz Roshanmehr, Yu Tahara, Saneyuki Makino, Ayako Tada, Nanako Abe, Mikiko Michie, Shigenobu Shibata*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


(1) Background: Dietary intake may have a remarkable effect on sleep because skipping breakfast and having a late dinner affects many sleep parameters. Breakfast is the most important meal of the day for children and adults to maintain morning chronotype. We examine whether breakfast style is associated with nutrient intake and sleep factors. (2) Methods: This cross-sectional analysis, with a large sample size of 2671 (766 men and 1805 women aged 20–60 years after data brush-up), was based on data obtained from an online survey. Correlation analysis was performed using Spearman’s rank correlation test. The Kruskal–Wallis’s test followed by post hoc Dunn’s multiple comparison test was used to evaluate the interaction between sleep factors and breakfast categories. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify variables associated with multiple confounding factors. Dietary data were analyzed using approximately one-month average dietary records from the application. The basic characteristics of the participants (age, sex, and BMI) and other lifestyle-related factors (sleep and physical activity) were obtained accordingly. Sleep parameters including the timing of weekday sleep onset, weekday wake-up, weekend (free day) sleep onset, weekend wake-up, sleep, and midpoints of sleep phase were calculated for each participant. We categorized participants’ breakfast types into five groups: (1) Japanese meal, where breakfast may contain Japanese ingredients such as rice; (2) Western meal, where breakfast may contain bread; (3) alternating eating patterns of Japanese and Western meals; (4) cereals and supplements, where breakfast may contain cereals or supplements and energy bars; and (5) skipped breakfast (no breakfast). (3) Results: The midpoint values of the sleep phase on weekends adjusted for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc) related to chronotype were higher in women, suggesting that they may prefer eveningness. Participants with obesity, young age, and low physical activity preferred eveningness with longer sleep durations. Intake of Japanese-style breakfast was significantly associated with early wake-up time on both weekdays and weekends. Cereal-style breakfast intake was significantly associated with late wake-up on both weekdays and weekends. Intake of macronutrients such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, and sodium at breakfast time was positively and strongly associated with the intake of Japanese breakfast, whereas macronutrients were negatively associated with the intake of cereal breakfast. Among micronutrients, vitamin K was positively correlated with Japanese breakfast and negatively correlated with cereal breakfast; (4) Conclusions: Japanese-style breakfast is associated not only with morning preference but also with high intake of macro- and micronutrients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3496
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sept


  • Japanese breakfast
  • breakfast
  • circadian clock
  • protein source
  • sleep phase
  • western breakfast

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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