Background and aim of the study: We have reported clinical findings that normally functioning open pivot ATS valves did not open completely. In order to analyze features of the ATS valve motion more precisely, in vitro tests were conducted. Methods: Opening angles and pressure gradients of the ATS valve were measured and compared with those of the St. Jude Medical (SJM) valve under steady flow, but with various outlet configurations. Second, opening angles of the two valves were measured under pulsatile conditions in two different outflow configurations: (i) a 'straight outlet' where the leaflets did not extend into the tapering outflow chamber, and (ii) an 'abrupt enlargement outlet' where the leaflets extended directly into the enlarged outflow space. Third, flow visualization studies were made under steady flow conditions in the straight and abrupt enlargement outlet conduits, respectively. Results: Under steady flow conditions, opening of the ATS valve was restricted in most outflow configurations; only when the outlet angle was 0°did the valve open fully. The SJM valve opened completely in all downstream configurations. Despite restricted opening in the ATS valve, the pressure gradient was similar in both valves. Under pulsatile conditions, both valves opened fully in the straight outlet; however, in the abrupt enlargement outlet the ATS valve opened incompletely and the SJM valve completely. Substantial turbulent flow was observed at the outside of the leaflet and corners of the conduit, notably with the ATS valve. Conclusion: This study showed that the ATS valve did not open fully except when the outflow was straight, and the leaflet did not extend into an enlarged downstream chamber. Structural features of the ATS, such as its axis being located close to the straight edge and its leaflets extending further downstream from the ring orifice, may cause this unique valve behavior.
|Number of pages
|Journal of Heart Valve Disease
|Published - 2000 May 1
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine