Awareness as observational heterarchy

Kohei Sonoda*, Kentaro Kodama, Yukio Pegio Gunji

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Libet et al. (1983) revealed that brain activity precedes conscious intention. For convenience in this study, we divide brain activity into two parts: a conscious field (CF) and an unconscious field (UF). Most studies have assumed a comparator mechanism or an illusion of CF and discuss the difference of prediction and postdiction. We propose that problems to be discussed here are a twisted sense of agency between CF and UF, and another definitions of prediction and postdiction in a mediation process for the twist. This study specifically examines the definitions throughout an observational heterarchy model based on internal measurement. The nature of agency must be emergence that involves observational heterarchy. Consequently, awareness involves processes having duality in the sense that it is always open to the world (postdiction) and that it also maintains self robustly (prediction).

Original languageEnglish
Article numberArticle 686
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Issue numberOCT
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Awareness
  • Emergence
  • Heterarchy
  • Internal measurement
  • Postdiction
  • Wholeness
  • prediction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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