Bacillus minimum genome factory: Effective utilization of microbial genome information

Katsutoshi Ara*, Katsuya Ozaki, Kouji Nakamura, Kunio Yamane, Junichi Sekiguchii, Naotake Ogasawara

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

108 Citations (Scopus)


In 1997, the complete genomic DNA sequence of Bacillus subtilis (4.2 Mbp) was determined and 4100 genes were identified [Kunst, Ogasawara, Moszer, Albertini, Alloni, Azevedo, Bertero, Bessieres, Bolotin, Borchert, S. et al. (1997) Nature 90, 249-256]. In addition, B. subtilis, which shows an excellent ability to secrete proteins (enzymes) and antibiotics in large quantities outside the cell, plays an important role in industrial and medical fields. It is necessary to clarify the genes involved in the production of compounds by understanding the network of these 4100 genes and the proceeding analysis of genes of unknown functions. In promoting such a study, it is expected that the regulatory system of B. subtilis can be simplified by the creation of a Bacillus strain with a reduced genome by discriminating genes unnecessary for the production of proteins from essential genes, and deleting as many of these unnecessary genes as possible, which may help to understand this complex network of genes. We have previously distinguished essential and non-essential genes by evaluating the growth and enzyme-producing properties of strains of B. subtilis in which about 3000 genes (except 271 essential genes) have been disrupted or deleted singly, and have successfully utilized the findings from these studies in creating the MGIM strain with an approx. I Mbp deletion by serially deleting 17 unnecessary regions from the genome. This strain showed slightly reduced growth in enzyme-production medium, but no marked morphological changes. Moreover, we confirmed that the MGIM strain had cellulase and protease productivity comparable with that of the B. subtilis 168 strain, thus demonstrating that genome reduction does not contribute to a negative influence on enzyme productivity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-178
Number of pages10
JournalBiotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Apr 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Genome analysis and reduction
  • Heterologous protein production
  • Host micro-organism
  • Minimum genome factory (MGF)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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