Behavior of Evaporated Palladium Catalyst for Electroless Nickel-Phosphorus Film Formation

Tetsuya Osaka, Lchiro Koiwa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Vacuum-evaporated palladium was used as catalyst for electroless Ni-P deposition on polyimide and alumina substrates. The effect that varying amounts of Pd had on the early stages of electroless plating was investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. No significant diffusion of the catalyst into the Ni-P film was observed; in some cases, a small amount of Pd tended to diffuse into the deposited Ni-P film, particularly on polyimide substrates. The deposition rate of the Ni-P film on polyimide was always less than that on alumina. An increased amount of catalyst decreased the deposition rate significantly without altering the stoichiometry of the plated film. When less than 10l6 Pd at./cm2 were evaporated onto the substrate, the catalyst formed clusters of palladium particles on the surface, whereas larger amounts of Pd (e.g., 2 x 1016 at./cm2) settled as a continuous film at the substrate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2081-2084
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1985 Sept

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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