Behavioral Repertoire of Families for Coping with Individuals with Hikikomori (Prolonged Social Withdrawal) in Japan1

Shunsuke Nonaka*, Hironori Shimada, Motohiro Sakai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to examine the characteristics of families’ behavioral repertoires in hikikomori (prolonged social withdrawal) cases. We asked 243 parents of individuals with hikikomori (hikikomori group) to complete the Family Behavioral Repertoire Scale for Coping With Hikikomori (FBS-H), the Negative Evaluation of Hikikomori Scale, and a self-efficacy measure of coping with problem behaviors of hikikomori in order to develop the FBS-H and to examine its reliability and validity. Additionally, we examined the characteristics of hikikomori cases regarding the families’ behavioral repertoires using data from the hikikomori group and from 458 parents of individuals with no experience of hikikomori (control group). The results of the analysis indicated the acceptable reliability and validity of the FBS-H. The hikikomori group did not have lower FBS-H scores than the control group. This result indicates the possibility that a family's behavioral repertoire does not strongly influence the “expression” of hikikomori. Further research is needed to clarify the influence of families’ behavioral repertoires to refine family support.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-25
Number of pages13
JournalJapanese Psychological Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan


  • Japan
  • development
  • family interaction
  • hikikomori
  • parent

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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