Better Intermediates Improve CTC Inference

Tatsuya Komatsu, Yusuke Fujita, Jaesong Lee, Lukas Lee, Shinji Watanabe, Yusuke Kida

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a method for improved CTC inference with searched intermediates and multi-pass conditioning. The paper first formulates self-conditioned CTC as a probabilistic model with an intermediate prediction as a latent representation and provides a tractable conditioning framework. We then propose two new conditioning methods based on the new formulation: (1) Searched intermediate conditioning that refines intermediate predictions with beam-search, (2) Multi-pass conditioning that uses predictions of previous inference for conditioning the next inference. These new approaches enable better conditioning than the original self-conditioned CTC during inference and improve the final performance. Experiments with the LibriSpeech dataset show relative 3%/12% performance improvement at the maximum in test clean/other sets compared to the original self-conditioned CTC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4965-4969
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, INTERSPEECH
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes
Event23rd Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, INTERSPEECH 2022 - Incheon, Korea, Republic of
Duration: 2022 Sept 182022 Sept 22


  • beam-search
  • connectionist temporal classification
  • language model
  • self-conditioning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Signal Processing
  • Software
  • Modelling and Simulation


Dive into the research topics of 'Better Intermediates Improve CTC Inference'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this