Biomechanical analysis of v2 skating in cross-country skiing

Zenya Fujita*, Jun Tsuchiya

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In this chapter, I focus on the motions and forces associated with an increase in gliding speed. The results show that in V2 skating, increases in velocity are accompanied by a flight phase in which the skis lift off the ground. The flight phase occurs after the gliding phase, in which the skis are touching the ground, and before thepush-off motion exerted by the legs occurs. This study also showed that the increase in speed during V2 skating was not accompanied by the flight phase in female athletes. However, considering the changes in forces during gliding, the potential that the flight phase can be generated exists. Further, the results also implied that in V2 skating, the increase in gliding speed is achieved by exerting a powerful force that is associated with the dynamic motions accompanying the flight phase. At the same time, in female athletes as well, the increase in gliding speed was observed to be accompanied by the exertion of a dynamic force. However, the latter was not strong enough to generatea flight phase. Therefore, in female athletes, the exertion of a dynamic force accompanied by a flight phase is expected to be a difficult skill to attain, owing to limiting factors that are different from those found in male athletes. In other words, performing gliding motions with a flight phase has the potential to exert a more dynamic force, and to increase the gliding speed. We have verified this hypothesis by conducting training experiments. The results showed that instructing and training female athletesto perform V2 skating with a flight phase was an effective means of increasing the gliding speed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSports Performance
PublisherSpringer Japan
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)9784431553151
ISBN (Print)9784431553144
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jan 1


  • Female athlete
  • Flight phase
  • Performance
  • Pole reaction force
  • Ski reaction force

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Social Sciences(all)


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