Black hole in the expanding universe with arbitrary power-law expansion

Kei Ichi Maeda*, Masato Nozawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


We present a time-dependent and spatially inhomogeneous solution that interpolates the extremal Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole and the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with arbitrary power-law expansion. It is an exact solution of the D-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton system, where two Abelian gauge fields couple to the dilaton with different coupling constants, and the dilaton field has a Liouville-type exponential potential. It is shown that the system satisfies the weak energy condition. The solution involves two harmonic functions on a (D-1)-dimensional Ricci-flat base space. In the case where the harmonics have a single-point source on the Euclidean space, we find that the spacetime describes a spherically symmetric charged black hole in the FLRW universe, which is characterized by three parameters: the steepness parameter of the dilaton potential nT, the U(1) charge Q, and the nonextremality τ. In contrast with the extremal RN solution, the spacetime admits a nondegenerate Killing horizon unless these parameters are finely tuned. The global spacetime structures are discussed in detail.

Original languageEnglish
Article number124038
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jun 18
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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