Bon Voyage: Developing a scale for measuring value among younger populations and examining its reliability and validity

Kenichiro Ishizu*, Tomu Ohtsuki, Yoshiyuki Shimoda, Fumito Takahashi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present study aimed to develop a scale for assessing value among younger populations, and to examine its reliability and validity. The 15-item “Values of Younger Ages” (VOYAGE) scale was developed through a review of previous literature and preliminary examinations of junior high school, high school, and university students. A total of 3085 respondents, comprising 1054 junior high school students (489 boys and 565 girls; mean age = 14.16 years), 1106 high school students (307 boys and 799 girls; mean age = 16.84 years), and 925 undergraduate students (474 boys and 451 girls; mean age = 19.97 years) from Japan, were recruited. Minimum average of the squared partial correlations and factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution (factor 1 = “Clarification of Value and Commitment” (CVC); factor 2 = “Continuation of Avoidance” (CA)), with the correlation between these factors being −0.27. CVC and CA had adequate internal consistency values for each participant group (ω coefficient range = 0.78~0.89) and moderate test-retest reliability. Scale validity was determined via positive relationships with measures of experiential avoidance, environmental reward, fulfillment, and subjective well-being. All items also had high discrimination power, indicating that VOYAGE could be useful for a wide range of young populations. The present scale for assessing values among early-to mid-adolescents aligns well with acceptance and commitment therapy based on psychological flexibility theory. We discuss how the VOYAGE measure appears to be a reliable and valid scale for younger populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-161
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan


  • Acceptance and commitment therapy
  • Adolescent
  • Measure development
  • values

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Applied Psychology
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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