Bootstrapping system defined by inconsistent relation between boolean and non-boolean algebra

Yukio Pegio Gunji*, Hisato Sadaoka, Keisuke Ito

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


We claim the using the formal biological system as a model evoking life must be much more unpredictable than Langton's guiding principle for artificial life, because any interaction is assumed to be computable in Langton's idea. In order to estimate nonlogical aspects of interactions which are not computable, we concentrate here on the relationship between a part and a whole. In other words, nonlogical aspects of interactions are articulated into the "prescription" described by a local observer and the " postscription" by a nonlocal observer. In this framework, we cannot deduce a prescribed local rule from a wholeness, and a local rule cannot be reduced from postscribed wholeness. We first show that such articulations with hierarchical structures result from descriptions involving measurements and/or observations. We propose a Bootstrapping system in which a local rule has two modes of descriptive manner: prescription, described in a logic a priori and a postscription, described in a logic a posteriori. We define cellular-automata fashioned model with a Bootstrapping system in adopting restricted Pseudo-Boolean algebra and Boolean algebra as a logic a priori and a posteriori, respectively, and show unpredictability underlying in the relation between a part and a whole, or deduction and reduction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-97
Number of pages55
JournalApplied Mathematics and Computation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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