As diamond possesses only deep dopants, certain conventional physics and characterization methods are not applicable to diamond devices, owing to the explicit or implicit assumption of shallow dopants. To resolve this limitation, the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors formed on a semiconductor substrate with deep and compensating dopants were successfully formulated. Based on these equations, methods for accurately estimating the MIS capacitor properties were developed and validated through their application in the analysis of an actual MIS capacitor formed on a boron-doped hydrogen-terminated diamond substrate. The high-frequency C-V characteristic of the capacitor exhibited a prominent dip specific to deep dopants. However, the dip depth was considerably shallower than theoretically expected. This C-V characteristic was accurately reproduced theoretically, assuming the presence of a surficial diamond layer that contains acceptors with an activation energy of 0.23 eV, which is less than the value 0.37 eV for boron, and has a thickness of the extrinsic Debye length (40 nm in this study) or larger. The insulator charge of the MIS capacitor was estimated as -4.6 × 1012 cm-2 in units of electronic charge, which is sufficiently large to induce two-dimensional hole gas. The interface-state density was 1.4 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1 for interface-state energies of 0.3-0.5 eV above the valence band maximum. Hence, the proposed methodology and the possible presence of the reduced activation energy layer will guide the development of diamond-based devices.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)