Carbon dioxide evolution from snow-covered agricultural ecosystems in Finland

Hiroshi Koizumi*, Markku Kontturi, Shigeru Mariko, Timo Mela

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The release of CO2 from the snow surface in winter and the soil surface in summer was directly or indirectly measured in three different soil types (peat, sand and clay) in agricultural ecosystems in Finland. The closed chamber (CC) method was used for the direct and Pick's diffusion model (DM) method for the indirect measurements. The winter soil temperatures at 2-cm depth were between O and 1°C for each soil type. The concentration of CO2 within the snowpack increased linearly with snow depth. The average fluxes of CO2 calculated from the gradients of CO2 concentration in the snow using the DM method ranged from 10 to 27 mg CO2 m-2 h-1, and with the CC method from 18 to 27 mg CO2 m-2 h-1. These results suggest that the snow insulates the soil thermally, allowing CO2 production to continue at soil temperatures slightly above freezing in the winter. Carbon dioxide formed in the soil can move across the snowpack up to the atmosphere. The winter/summer ratio of CO2 evolution was estimated to exceed 4%. Therefore, the snow-covered crop soil served as a source of CO2 in winter, and CO2 evolution constitutes an important part of the annual CO2 budget in snowy regions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421-430
Number of pages10
JournalAgricultural and Food Science in Finland
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes


  • Closed chamber method
  • CO flux
  • CO profile
  • Heavy clay soil
  • Peat soil
  • Sand soil
  • Snowpack
  • Soil respiration
  • Subarctic climate reion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science


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