Carbonate content control in carbonate apatite coatings of biodegradable magnesium

Kazuma Midorikawa, Sachiko Hiromoto*, Tomoyuki Yamamoto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Carbonate apatite (CAp) coating has been developed as a bioabsorbable corrosion-control coating for biodegradable Mg alloys. Carbonate content in the CAp coatings can be utilized to control the bioabsorbability and corrosion rate of CAp-coated Mg alloys. In this study, the carbonate content in the CAp coatings of pure Mg was varied by NaHCO3 concentration of the coating solution from 0.25 to 1.0 mol/L, and hydroxyapatite (HAp) was formed without NaHCO3. The CAp and HAp coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The carbonate content in the apatite coatings formed with 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mol/L NaHCO3 was determined to be 2, 12, 15 and 18 wt%, respectively, from the apatite 002 plane XRD peak position using the existing conversion constant as well as from the coating composition obtained by the XPS analysis. The values of carbonate content obtained by each method were in good accordance, indicating that the carbonate content can be determined simply by XRD measurements. Two types of carbonate group were present in the CAp coatings, CO32− and HCO3-, and the relative content of HCO3- to CO32− increased with an increase in the carbonate content.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6784-6792
Number of pages9
JournalCeramics International
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Feb 15


  • Biodegradable magnesium
  • Carbonate apatite
  • Carbonate content
  • Coatings
  • X-ray diffraction
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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