Carrier-Domain Method for high-resolution computation of time-periodic long-wake flows

Yang Liu, Kenji Takizawa*, Tayfun E. Tezduyar, Takashi Kuraishi, Yufei Zhang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


We are introducing the Carrier-Domain Method (CDM) for high-resolution computation of time-periodic long-wake flows, with cost-effectives that makes the computations practical. The CDM is closely related to the Multidomain Method, which was introduced 24 years ago, originally intended also for cost-effective computation of long-wake flows and later extended in scope to cover additional classes of flow problems. In the CDM, the computational domain moves in the free-stream direction, with a velocity that preserves the outflow nature of the downstream computational boundary. As the computational domain is moving, the velocity at the inflow plane is extracted from the velocity computed earlier when the plane’s current position was covered by the moving domain. The inflow data needed at an instant is extracted from one or more instants going back in time as many periods. Computing the long-wake flow with a high-resolution moving mesh that has a reasonable length would certainly be far more cost-effective than computing it with a fixed mesh that covers the entire length of the wake. We are also introducing a CDM version where the computational domain moves in a discrete fashion rather than a continuous fashion. To demonstrate how the CDM works, we compute, with the version where the computational domain moves in a continuous fashion, the 2D flow past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 100. At this Reynolds number, the flow has an easily discernible vortex shedding frequency and widely published lift and drag coefficients and Strouhal number. The wake flow is computed up to 350 diameters downstream of the cylinder, far enough to see the secondary vortex street. The computations are performed with the Space–Time Variational Multiscale method and isogeometric discretization; the basis functions are quadratic NURBS in space and linear in time. The results show the power of the CDM in high-resolution computation of time-periodic long-wake flows.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-190
Number of pages22
JournalComputational Mechanics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jan


  • Carrier-Domain Method
  • Flow past a circular cylinder
  • High-resolution computation
  • Isogeometric discretization
  • Long-wake flows
  • Secondary vortex street
  • Space–Time Variational Multiscale method
  • Vortex shedding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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