Changes in lumbar kinematics and trunk muscle electromyographic activity during baseball batting under psychological pressure

Tomoki Oshikawa, Yasuhiro Morimoto, Gen Adachi, Hiroshi Akuzawa, Koji Kaneoka*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Psychological pressure during sports competition disturbs the ideal physical movement and causes injury. Baseball batting frequently causes trunk injuries. This study aimed to examine the influence of psychological pressure on the lumbar kinematics and trunk muscle activity during the baseball batting. Fourteen collegiate baseball players participated in this study. The participants performed bat swings under three different psychological conditions (non-pressure, pressure, and emphasized pressure). The lumbar kinematics and trunk muscle activity were measured during each bat swing. One- and two-way analyses of variance were performed to compare the lumbar kinematics and trunk muscle activity among different psychological pressure conditions. The lumbar flexion angle throughout the bat swing in the swing phase, from the moment of ground contact of the lead foot to the moment of ball contact, was significantly larger under the pressure and emphasized pressure conditions than under the non-pressure condition (P<0.05). The bilateral lumbar erector spinae (LES) activities in the swing and follow-through phases were significantly higher under the emphasized pressure condition than under the non-pressure condition (P<0.05). These results indicate that the baseball batting under psychological pressure influenced the lumbar kinematics and bilateral LES activities and may be related to the development of low back pain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)66-75
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Biomechanics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan 1


  • Baseball batting kinematics
  • different psychological pressure conditions
  • electromyography
  • lumbar spine
  • trunk muscle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Computer Science Applications


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