Changes in the industrial organization: Rise of spin-outs

Hiroshi Shimizu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


As we have seen, laser diode R&D emerged primarily for optical communication applications. Due to technological developments in optical fibers, the wavelength resulting in the least transmission loss changed from short wavelengths of the 800-nm range to longer wavelength of 1300-nm and 1550-nm ranges. Therefore, more focus was given to R&D to develop laser diodes that would make high-speed, high-capacity optical communication possible at those longer wavelengths. To that end, scientists and engineers at telecommunications R&D facilities developed longer-wavelength laser diodes. Simultaneously, however, scientists and engineers began to develop shorter-wavelength laser diodes for optical information recording and processing, as more information could be processed with shorter-wavelength laser diodes.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Japanese Business and Economics
Number of pages30
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameAdvances in Japanese Business and Economics
ISSN (Print)2197-8859
ISSN (Electronic)2197-8867

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Strategy and Management
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Finance


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