Transient characteristics as well as unsteady cascade flow fields of a three-stage axial flow compressor with compression plane wave injection from the compressor downstream were experimentally investigated by detail measurements of casing wall pressure fluctuations and unsteady velocity. The main feature of tested compressor is a shock tube facility connected in series to the compressor outlet duct in order to supply a compression plane wave which simulates the sudden rise of the compressor back pressure in a gas turbine system. Research attention is mainly focused on the unsteady behavior of surge and rotating stall coexistence phenomenon, and influence of the compression plane wave injection on the compressor operating conditions. When the compressor is connected to the capacity tank, surge and rotating stall occur simultaneously according to the capacitance increment of the whole compression system. The surge cycle changes irregularly with a throttling of the valve installed just behind the compressor and several different types of surge behaviors are observed. Furthermore, even though the compressor is operating under the stable condition, it goes into surge by injecting the compression plane wave.