Chemical synthesis of porous barium titanate thin film and thermal stabilization of ferroelectric phase by porosity-induced strain

Norihiro Suzuki*, Minoru Osada, Motasim Billah, Yoshio Bando, Yusuke Yamauchi, Shahriar A. Hossain

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    9 Citations (Scopus)


    Barium titanate (BaTiO3, hereafter BT) is an established ferroelectric material first discovered in the 1940s and still widely used because of its well-balanced ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and dielectric constant. In addition, BT does not contain any toxic elements. Therefore, it is considered to be an eco-friendly material, which has attracted considerable interest as a replacement for lead zirconate titanate (PZT). However, bulk BT loses its ferroelectricity at approximately 130 °C, thus, it cannot be used at high temperatures. Because of the growing demand for high-temperature ferroelectric materials, it is important to enhance the thermal stability of ferroelectricity in BT. In previous studies, strain originating from the lattice mismatch at hetero-interfaces has been used. However, the sample preparation in this approach requires complicated and expensive physical processes, which are undesirable for practical applications. In this study, we propose a chemical synthesis of a porous material as an alternative means of introducing strain. We synthesized a porous BT thin film using a surfactant-assisted sol-gel method, in which self-assembled amphipathic surfactant micelles were used as an organic template. Through a series of studies, we clarified that the introduction of pores had a similar effect on distorting the BT crystal lattice, to that of a hetero-interface, leading to the enhancement and stabilization of ferroelectricity. Owing to its simplicity and cost effectiveness, this fabrication process has considerable advantages over conventional methods.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere57441
    JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
    Issue number133
    Publication statusPublished - 2018 Mar 20


    • Anisotorpic strain
    • Barium titanate
    • Ferroelectric phase
    • Porous thin film
    • Surfactant-assisted sol-gel method
    • Thermal stability

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General Neuroscience
    • General Chemical Engineering
    • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
    • General Immunology and Microbiology


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