Citric Acid

Kotaro Kirimura*, Y. Honda, T. Hattori

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    29 Citations (Scopus)


    Citric acid is one of the most widely used organic acids, and its annual worldwide production reached 1.6 million ton during 2009. It is used as an acidulant and preservative in the food industry, and also as a complexing agent in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Citric acid is also used as a complexing and chelating agent in metal treatment, as a water softener for detergents, and as a buffering agent in toiletry and pharmaceutical industries. Citric acid is exclusively produced by fermentation with the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. The industrial production is performed using carbohydrates or agro-industrial residues as substrates by three different types of processes: submerged, surface, and solid fermentations. This article provides a current review of advances in citric acid production by A. niger and application of citric acid in various fields.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationIndustrial Biotechnology and Commodity Products
    PublisherElsevier Inc.
    Number of pages8
    ISBN (Electronic)9780080885049
    ISBN (Print)9780444533524
    Publication statusPublished - 2011 Sept 9


    • Aspergillus niger
    • Candida lipolytica (Yarrowia lipolytica)
    • Citric acid
    • Metabolic engineering
    • Protoplast fusion
    • Solid fermentation process
    • Submerged fermentation process
    • Surface fermentation process
    • Tricarboxylic acid cycle

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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