Citric acid

Kohtaro Kirimura, Isato Yoshioka*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

8 Citations (Scopus)


Citric acid is one of the most widely used organic acids, and its annual worldwide output has reached 2.1 million ton in 2016. It is used as an acidulant and preservative in the food industries, and also used as a complexing agent and starting materials for functional compounds in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Citric acid is also used as a complexing and chelating agent in metal treatment, as a water softener for detergents, and as a buffering agent in toiletry and pharmaceutical industries. Citric acid is exclusively produced by fermentation with filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. The industrial production is performed using carbohydrates or agro-industrial residues as substrates by three different type processes: submerged, surface, and solid fermentations. This chapter provides advances in citric acid production by A. niger and application of citric acid in various fields.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComprehensive Biotechnology
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9780444640475
ISBN (Print)9780444640468
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1


  • Aspergillus niger
  • Candida lipolytica (Yarrowia lipolytica)
  • Citric acid
  • Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway
  • Genome editing
  • Metabolic engineering
  • Protoplast fusion
  • Solid fermentation process
  • Submerged fermentation process
  • Surface fermentation process
  • Tricarboxylic acid cycle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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