Classification of Fragrances by Mismatched Colors

Tadayuki Wakata*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Previous studies have examined the relationship between color and fragrance. The fragrances with similar colors have similar impressions. It suggested that colors can express other sensations. However, there has not been much on the relationship between fragrances and mismatched colors. The purpose of this study is to classify fragrances using mismatched colors, and to examine the impression tendency of the classified fragrances. Tone, hue and achromatic color in Practical Color Co-ordinate System (PCSS) were used for color stimuli. 30 fragrances were used for fragrance stimuli. These consisted of flavors and essential oils. For evaluation items, Semantic Differential method was used for impression evaluation, and Visual Analog Scale was used for brightness/vividness evaluation. Procedure for color stimuli: Subject observed the color and performed impression evaluation and brightness/vividness evaluation. Procedure for fragrance stimulation: Subjects smelled the fragrance stimulus and performed impression evaluation and selection of matched/mismatched colors for fragrance. 65 participants joined in the experiment. It was suggested that colors can express the scent through impression, even mismatched ones. In determining the color selection, we assumed that “brilliantness” is related to tone and color category along the hue circle is related to hue. In addition, it was suggested that the harmonious and inharmonic scent colors are in a trade-off relationship.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 8th International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research, KEER 2020
EditorsHiroko Shoji, Shinichi Koyama, Toshimasa Yamanaka, Takeo Kato, Keiichi Muramatsu, Pierre Lévy, Kuohsiang Chen, Anitawati Mohd Lokman
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9789811578007
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event8th International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research, KEER 2020 - Tokyo, Japan
Duration: 2020 Sept 72020 Sept 9

Publication series

NameAdvances in Intelligent Systems and Computing
Volume1256 AISC
ISSN (Print)2194-5357
ISSN (Electronic)2194-5365


Conference8th International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research, KEER 2020


  • Color
  • Fragrance
  • Mismatch color
  • PCCS
  • Tone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computer Science(all)


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