We aimed to verify the combined use of two frailty tools in predicting mortality in older adults. We used the data of 10,276 Japanese older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) who provided valid responses to two frailty assessment tools in a mail survey in Japan’s Kyoto‒Kameoka Prospective cohort study. Frailty status was categorized into four groups depending on the validated frailty screening index and Kihon Checklist, respectively: Non-frailty (n = 5960), Physical frailty (n = 223), Comprehensive frailty (n = 2211), and Combination (n = 1882) groups. Mortality data were collected between July 30, 2011, and November 30, 2016. We assessed the relationship between frailty status and all-cause mortality risk using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, we recorded 1257 deaths. After adjusting for confounders, the Combination group had the highest mortality risk compared with the other groups [Non-frailty: reference; Physical frailty: hazards ratio [HR], 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58 to 1.70); Comprehensive frailty: 1.91 (1.63 to 2.23); Combination: 2.85 (2.44 to 3.22)]. People who are positive for frailty in both instruments have a higher risk of death than those who are positive to one model.
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