Comfortable stereo viewing on mobile devices

Takashi Shibata, Fumiya Muneyuki, Keisuke Oshima, Junki Yoshitake, Takashi Kawai

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Citations (Scopus)


As 3D technology spreads, 3D imagery is being viewed in more diverse situations. Already, televisions and mobile devices are able to present 3D images, in addition to the cinema. Of these, mobile devices have the unique characteristic of requiring users to view images at close range. The authors conduct an experiment to examine the relationship between visual comfort and an individual observer's near phoria and interpupillary distance. The results show that observers with a higher degree of exophoria tend to prefer stereo images behind the screen because they cause less visual fatigue. On the other hand, observers with little exophoria or esophoria tend to prefer stereo images in front of the screen. Further, the results also show that observers with a greater interpupillary distance tend to prefer stereo images behind the screen. These findings suggest that the ability to adjust the depth of stereo images in advance based on personal phoria or interpupillary distance might help users achieve comfortable stereo viewing on mobile devices.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE-IS and T Electronic Imaging - Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXIV
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jun 12
Event24th IS and T/SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, SD and A 2013 - Burlingame, CA, United States
Duration: 2013 Feb 42013 Feb 6

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


Conference24th IS and T/SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, SD and A 2013
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityBurlingame, CA


  • Interpupillary distance
  • Mobile devices
  • Phoria
  • Stereoscopic images
  • Visual comfort

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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