Common-acoustical-pole and zero modeling of head-related transfer functions

Yoichi Haneda*, Shoji Makino, Yutaka Kaneda, Nobuhiko Kitawaki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Citations (Scopus)


Use of a common-acoustical-pole and zero model is proposed for modeling head-related transfer functions (HRTF's) for various directions of sound incidence. The HRTF's are expressed using the common acoustical poles, which do not depend on the source directions, and the zeros, which do. The common acoustical poles are estimated as they are common to HRTF's for various source directions; the estimated values of the poles agree well with the resonance frequencies of the ear canal. Because this model uses only the zeros to express the HRTF variations due to changes in source direction, it requires fewer parameters (the order of the zeros) that depend on the source direction than do the conventional all-zero or pole/zero models. Furthermore, the proposed model can extract the zeros that are missed in the conventional models because of pole-zero cancellation. As a result, the directional dependence of the zeros can be traced well. Analysis of the zeros for HRTF's on the horizontal plane showed that the nonminimum-phase zero variation was well formulated using a simple pinna-reflection model. The common-acousticalpole and zero (CAPZ) model is thus effective for modeling and analyzing HRTF's.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)188-195
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Head-related transfer function
  • Modeling
  • Nonminimum-phase zeros
  • Poles and zeros
  • Resonance frequency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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