Comparing direct-to-consumer genetic testing services in English, Japanese, and Chinese websites

Kentaro Nagai*, Mikihito Tanaka, Alessandro R. Marcon, Ryuma Shineha, Katsushi Tokunaga, Timothy Caulfield, Yasuko Takezawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) has rapidly become available and affordable throughout developed countries. However, comparative research on DTC-GT services beyond Western countries has remained scarce, particularly in East Asian countries such as Japan and China. Hence, this study’s hypothesis is that although DTC-GT services in three languages might utilize the same un-derlying testing technology, such services are likely to represent the social, economic, and political characteristics of each country. For the study, a total of 267 websites (182 English, 32 Japanese, and 53 Chinese) were analyzed and coded reflexively into five categories for content analysis before interpre-tation using cluster and factor analyses. The results demonstrated variation between the three languages that reflected their respective consumer cultures: English, Chinese, and Japanese genetic testing websites focused on empowerment and ancestry; cultural values, especially familism; and health and beauty, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-13
Number of pages11
JournalAnthropological Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • culture
  • direct-to-consumer genetic testing
  • media

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anthropology


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