Flows with moving interfaces include fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and quite a few other classes of problems, have an important place in engineering analysis and design, and pose significant computational challenges. Bringing solution and analysis to them motivated the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) method and also the variational multiscale version of the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method (ALE-VMS). These two methods and their improved versions have been applied to a diverse set of challenging problems with a common core computational technology need. The classes of problems solved include free-surface and two-fluid flows, fluid-object and fluid-particle interaction, FSI, and flows with solid surfaces in fast, linear or rotational relative motion. Some of the most challenging FSI problems, including parachute FSI, wind-turbine FSI and arterial FSI, are being solved and analyzed with the DSD/SST and ALE-VMS methods as core technologies. Better accuracy and improved turbulence modeling were brought with the recently-introduced VMS version of the DSD/SST method, which is called DSD/SST-VMST (also ST-VMS). In specific classes of problems, such as parachute FSI, arterial FSI, ship hydrodynamics, fluid-object interaction, aerodynamics of flapping wings, and wind-turbine aerodynamics and FSI, the scope and accuracy of the modeling were increased with the special ALE-VMS and ST techniques targeting each of those classes of problems. This article provides an overview of how the core and special ALE-VMS and ST techniques are used in computational engineering analysis and design. The article includes an overview of three of the special ALE-VMS and ST techniques, which are just a few examples of the many special techniques that complement the core methods. The impact of the ALE-VMS and ST methods in engineering analysis and design are shown with examples of challenging problems solved and analyzed in parachute FSI, arterial FSI, ship hydrodynamics, aerodynamics of flapping wings, wind-turbine aerodynamics, and bridge-deck aerodynamics and vortex-induced vibrations.