Construction of a Multiple Driving Affective Scale

Masanori Matsuoka, Keiichi Muramatsu, Kazunori Kaede, Keiichi Watanuki, Toshihiro Shiimado, Yukio Nishizawa

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


The authors' goal is to develop brakes that are more satisfying to users in sensory aspects by explaining the relationship between people's state of mind and a vehicle's physical quantities. However, there are no scales to measure such feeling. In this study, a psychological scale was constructed to measure the affective state of general automobile drivers, for the purpose of clarifying the effects of brake characteristics on the affective state. To construct the affective scale, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, a comparison of four types of vehicles was performed and then an interview survey was conducted to collect a broad sample of terms used to evaluate the affective state. From the results, it was hypothesized that the evaluation terms were divided into eight categories. For each hypothesized category, ten evaluation terms were selected from the terms obtained in the interviews, the items of the existing psychological evaluation scale, and the synonym survey results of them. In the second experiment, we evaluated terms we selected to conduct an assessment of 15 types of driving scenarios that were selected from among brake evaluation patterns. Next, we conducted a factor analysis using the assessment results. As a result, the affective states were classified according to seven factors (Well-Being, Anxiety and Surprise, Liveliness, Positive Feelings, Disgust, Boredom, and Concentration), with five items attached to each factor, yielding a total of 35 items. The reliability and the validity of each scale were investigated. Results have shown that the subscales have highly internal consistency and factorial validity.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSAE Technical Papers
Issue numberOctober
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Oct 5
Externally publishedYes
EventSAE 36th Annual Brake Colloquium and Exhibition, BRAKE 2018 - Palm Desert, United States
Duration: 2018 Oct 142018 Oct 17

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Pollution
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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