Cooperative coaching: Benefits to students in extracurricular school sports

Kenryu Aoyagi*, Kaori Ishii, Ai Shibata, Hirokazu Arai, Hanako Fukamachi, Koichiro Oka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Problem Statement: Many youths participate in school-based extracurricular sports activities (SBECSA). These SBECSAs contribute to positive youth development. However, SBECSAs sometimes require the outsourcing of human resources. The major reason is difficulty to manage SBECSAs by employing teachers as the primary coaching resources. Using external coaches is an effective solution for reducing the workload on teachers, and it can contribute to improving teachers’ and students’ knowledge and skills. Because teacher involvement also appears to provide benefits for students, cooperative coaching between external coaches and teachers is essential. However, the lack of evidence regarding the benefits that cooperative coaching offers students may result in inadequate cooperation. Approach: In all, 23 students who participated in SBECSAs were recruited from three junior high schools and three high schools that employed external coaches. An open-ended, semi-structured interview was conducted with each student. The KJ method was used for qualitative analysis of the responses. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine how external coaches and teachers impact students’ experiences in SBECSAs, and how external coaches and teachers differ and/or have similar impacts. Results: In terms of benefits from external coaches, six categories and 31 subcategories were identified. The major categories included the following: expert coaching; support for SBECSA teacher; general coaching; human network; improved SBECSA atmosphere; and equipment supply. Benefits from teachers comprised six categories and 22 subcategories. The major categories identified were as follows: general coaching; management and office work; participation in SBECSA; human network; connection with school life; and improved SBECSA atmosphere. Conclusions: Students perceived overlapping and specific benefits from both groups, which indicated that cooperative coaching would be more desirable to students than having only external coaches or teacher instruct their SBECSAs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number128
Pages (from-to)806-815
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Physical Education and Sport
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Sept


  • External coach
  • Extracurricular activity
  • Human resource management
  • Outsourcing
  • Qualitative study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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