Dependency of stratiform precipitation on a two-moment cloud microphysical scheme in mid-latitude squall line is investigated, using full one-moment, full two-moment and partial two-moment schemes. The results show that the effect of two-moment scheme for rain is consistent with those presented in preceding studies, but the effect is found to be dependent on two-moment scheme for ice water species (ice particles) which enhanced detrainment in convective region and increased rearward buoyancy fluxes. Use of the two-moment scheme for cloud water and cloud ice is found to have less direct impact on the formation of stratiform precipitation, but indirectly affects the precipitation by changing source number concentration of large liquid and ice particles. Two-moment treatment for graupel rather than snow is also found to have great impact on stratiform precipitation through the melting process. The horizontally narrow and vertically gradual graupel melting profile originated from its size distribution change causes suppression to the convective updraft in convective region, and thus increases horizontal rearward buoyancy from the convective to stratiform regions with enhanced growth of ice water species, resulting in an increase in stratiform precipitation. To simulate these features, two-moment treatment for graupel or diagnostic model for graupel intercept parameter considering size distribution change is required.
- Mid-latitude squall line
- Stratiform precipitation
- Two-moment cloud microphysical scheme
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atmospheric Science