Designing motivation using persuasive ambient mirrors

Tatsuo Nakajima*, Vili Lehdonvirta

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

109 Citations (Scopus)


In this article, we describe four case studies of ubiquitous persuasive technologies that support behavior change through personalized feedback reflecting a user's current behavior or attitude. The first case study is Persuasive Art, reflecting the current status of a user's physical exercise in artistic images. The second system, Virtual Aquarium, reflects a user's toothbrushing behavior in a Virtual Aquarium. The third system, Mona Lisa Bookshelf, reflects the situation of a shared bookshelf on a Mona Lisa painting. The last case study is EcoIsland, reflecting cooperative efforts toward reducing CO2 emissions as a set of virtual islands shared by a neighborhood. Drawing from the experience of designing and evaluating these systems, we present guidelines for the design of persuasive ambient mirrors: systems that use visual feedback to effect changes in users' everyday living patterns. In particular, we feature findings in choosing incentive systems, designing emotionally engaging feedback, timing feedback, and persuasive interaction design. Implications for current design efforts as well as for future research directions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-126
Number of pages20
JournalPersonal and Ubiquitous Computing
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jan


  • Gamification
  • Interaction design
  • Persuasive technology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Library and Information Sciences


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