Deterioration of stone materials in the Angkor monuments, Cambodia

E. Uchida*, Y. Ogawa, N. Maeda, T. Nakagawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Citations (Scopus)


The Angkor monuments in Cambodia are built mainly of sandstone and laterite. This paper mainly describes the deterioration of sandstone blocks. The sandstone in the monuments can be classified into three types based on the colour, texture, chemical composition and constituent mineral; grey to yellowish brown sandstone, red sandstone and greenish greywacke. The deterioration is distinct in grey to yellowish brown sandstone because of its low compressive strength, high porosity, well developed bedding, and constituent minerals susceptible to alteration such as feldspar and biotite. The main causes of deterioration identified are chemical weathering, efflorescence related to bat guano, and biodeterioration by the growth of trees, algae and lichens. An water supply is also indispensable for deterioration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-112
Number of pages12
JournalEngineering Geology
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Jan


  • Angkor monuments
  • Deterioration
  • Efflorescence
  • P-wave propagation velocity
  • Rebound value
  • Sandstone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Geology


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